Ibn Rushd Fi Kitab Fasl Al-Maqal Wa-Taqrir Ma Bayna Al-Shari Ah Wa-Al-Hikmah Min Al-Ittisal, Ahamm Al-Mawdu at Fi Al-Falsafah Wa-Al-Fiqh Wa-Al-Manhaj. the content of Fasl al-Maqal, and then examine what Ibn Rushd in fact does in Kitab Fasl al-Maqal wa Taqrlr ma bayn al-Shart’ah wa al-Hikmah min at-Ittisal. Kitab fasl al-maqal, with its appendix (Damima) and translation is based on the Arabic text in Ibn Rushd (Averroes) Kitab fasl al-maqal, ed.

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In memory of my father

I AM grateful to the International Commission for the Translation of Great Works and the Trustees of the Gibb Memorial Fund for sponsoring the publication of this book, and to the Graduate School of the University of Michigan for financial assistance towards research.

Scriptural texts of this class have no allegorical interpretations, and anyone who denies them or interprets them allegorically is an unbeliever. Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions. It presents a true analogy, in that the relation of the doctor to the health of bodies is [the same as] the relation of the Legislator to the health of souls: You ought to know that the purpose of Scripture is simply to teach true science and right practice.

For by this procedure he wanted to increase the number al-maqqal learned men, but in fact he increased the number of the corrupted not of the learned!

If it conflicts there is a call for allegorical interpretation of it. Praise be to Al-maqa, with all due praise, and a prayer for Muhammad His chosen servant and apostle. Gibb Memorial” and Pub. The latter course seems more suitable as a means of ending the doubt which arises in the soul from this [class of text].

Formats and Editions of Kitāb fasl al-maqāl []

But in truth it is neither really originated nor really pre-eternal, since the really al-kaqal is necessarily perishable and the really pre-eternal has no cause. So whoever denies such a thing, when it is one of the principles of the Law, is an unbeliever, who persists in defiance with his tongue though not with his heart, or neglects to expose himself to learning the indication of its truth.

God is the Guide and helps us to follow the right course!

But all references are to the editio princeps of M. But kitzb masters of this religion support intellectual reasoning, except a small group of gross literalists, who can be refuted by [sacred] texts. One class is those who are not people of interpretation at all: Trustees of the E. The reason for that [in the case of the latter] is that allegorical interpretation comprises two things, rejection of the apparent meaning and affirmation of the allegorical one; so that if the apparent meaning is rejected in the mind of someone who can only grasp apparent meanings, without the allegorical meaning being affirmed in his mind, the result is unbelief, if it [the text in question] concerns the principles of religion.


In these cases it is preferable to deny the existence of symbolization. This difficulty is confirmed by what appears in the case of man: From our account you have now become aware of the amount of error that occurs as a result of allegorical interpretation. The precious Book has told us to seek it by acts conformable kitxb the Law, in several verses.

To these Abu Hamid turned his attention in his book: The Arabic article is omitted in front of single names, e. But al-maaal they are set down in other than demonstrative books and one deals with them by poetical, rhetorical or dialectical methods, as Abu Hamid does, then he commits an offence against kita Law and against philosophy, even though the fellow intended nothing but good.

And if someone today wanted to find out by himself all the arguments which have ktab discovered by the theorists of the legal schools on controversial questions, about which debate has taken place between them in most countries of Islam except the West44 he would deserve to be ridiculed, because such a task is impossible for him, apart from the fact that the work has been done already.

McCarthy; their help has led to many improvements and is warmly acknowledged. The relation between the aim of kitwb people and the aim of the Legislator [can be illustrated by] a parable, of a man who goes to a skilful doctor.

If this is so, then whenever we find in the works of our predecessors of former nations a theory about beings and a reflection on them conforming to what the conditions of demonstration require, we ought to study what they said about the matter and what they affirmed in their books.

For death from water by choking is an accidental matter, but death by thirst is essential and necessary. It is God who helps us to follow the right course and guarantees our reward, through His favour and mercy.

By it He has opened a way to many benefits, especially to the class of persons who have trodden the path of study and sought to know the truth. Through knowledge of Scripture and practice according to Scripture the Legislator aims solely at this health; and it is from this health that happiness in the future life follows, just as misery in the future life follows from its opposite. It is also possible to release the allegorical interpretation to them, because of the strong resemblance between the thing mentioned and kita it symbolizes.


Another group holds that there is a difference in the kind of existence. The whole al-mzqal this [argument] is founded on the immortality of al-maqxl soul. This is as much as we kjtab fit to affirm in this field of study, i. Please create a new list with a new kitb move some items to a new or existing list; or delete some items.

If it is unmentioned there is no contradiction, and it is in the same case as an act whose category is unmentioned, so that the lawyer has to infer it by reasoning from Scripture. As a result, one group came to slander philosophy, another to slander religion, and another to reconcile the [first] two [groups].


Gibb Memorial and Published by Messrs. They only disagree about past time and past being: He asserted that knowledge and the object known are related; and as one of two related things may change without the other changing in itself, this is just what seems to happen to things in the Knowledge of God the Glorious: Indeed these allegorical interpretations always receive confirmation from the apparent meaning of other passages of Scripture.

The [full] solution of this difficulty would call for a lengthy discourse; but here we shall only go into the decisive point of the solution.

To how many lawyers has law been a cause of lack of piety and immersion in this world! When it is made known, the resulting popular beliefs are apt to cause confusion. Philosophy contains nothing opposed to Islam.

These are the four or five classes of beings mentioned by Abu Hamid in The book of ktab distinction. Thus it is not strange if the same thing that occurs accidentally in the art which calls for practical virtue should occur accidentally in the art which calls for intellectual virtue.

In the light of this idea the Muslims are unanimous 68 in holding that it is not obligatory either to take all the expressions of Scripture in their apparent meaning or to extend them all from their apparent meaning by allegorical interpretation. A nother class is the people of dialectical interpretation: One is that the soul is immortal.