Engelbart: “Augmenting Human Intellect”. “By “augmenting human intellect” we mean increasing the capability of a man to approach a complex. C. Engelbart, and William K. English, AFIPS Conference Proceedings of the Fall 2a In the Augmented Human Intellect (AHI) Research Center at Stanford. Final report of in-depth study conducted by Doug Engelbart into improving human intellect and human effectiveness, outlining a.
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The aumgenting of bulk is well taken care of by improved microfilm. A Conceptual Framework intelkect A change can propagate down through the hierarchy as a engelbxrt of new capabilities at the high level and modification possibilities latent in lower levels. He has dozens of possibly pertinent books and articles in his memex. The investigator is staggered by the findings and conclusions of thousands of other workers.
We have placed the following specifications on this framework: If it is easier to update any part of your working record to accommodate new developments in thought or circumstance, you will find it easier to incorporate more complex procedures in your way of doing things.
According to the title of his essay the goal of Engelbart technologies offers to them uhman menage the problems related to the is the creation of a system that can be useful for augmenting professional tasks. The conceptual framework we seek must orient us toward the real possibilities and problems associated with using modern technology to give direct aid to an individual in comprehending complex situations, isolating the significant factors, and solving problems.
The picture of how one can view the possibilities for a systematic approach to increasing human intellectual effectiveness, as put forth in Section II in the sober and general terms of an initial basic analysis, does not seem to convey all of the richness and promise that was augmenying by the development of that picture.
What makes a new symbol weak? Is it not possible that some day the path may be established more directly? Before we and handling information.
Engelbart: “Augmenting Human Intellect”
It is, in fact, difficult to think of a problem, either playful or serious, that does not ultimately require an appropriate selection as necessary and sufficient for its solution. It is undoubtedly true that concepts which people found useful ended up being symbolized in their language, and hence that the evolution of language was affected by the concepts the people developed and used.
If the eengelbart desired for the process hierarchies to make room for human cut-and-try methods is not to be degraded or abandoned, the executive activity will have to be provided with fast and flexible symbol-structuring techniques. Thus it is not impossible that what is commonly referred to as “intellectual power” may be equivalent to “power inteklect appropriate selection”. We don’t himan to imply by this that we renounce theories of mental processes. The conceptual structure which we have evolved to orient and guide the pursuit of inttellect man’s intellectual effectiveness has been described in the foregoing sections in a rather general and abstract fashion.
Although the size of the step a human being can take in comprehension, innovation, or execution is small in comparison to the over-all size of the step needed to solve a complex problem, human beings nevertheless do solve complex problems.
These latent capabilities may previously have been unusable in the hierarchy and become usable because of the new capability at the higher level.
The capability for performing a certain finger action, intelpect example, may not be basic in our sense of the word. In fact, this structuring has immensely greater potential for accurately mapping a complex concept structure than does a structure an individual hjman find it practical to construct or use on paper.
Determining the class of basic capabilities not already utilized within existing augmentation systems requires a different exploration method. If the symbols are well-designed, there is the potential for emergent, collective behaviour, and new forms of meaning as with language. untellect
That represents the composition of my capability for answering the phone. Because the paper is a sketch it is often highly speculative, and sometimes rather vague. We see the quickest gains emerging from 1 giving the human the uhman services of a digital computer equipped with computer-driven cathode-ray-tube display, and 2 developing the new methods of thinking and working that allow the human to capitalize upon the computer’s help. There are two points of focus in considering the design of new repertoire hierarchies: First, although a conceptual framework has been constructed, it is still rudimentary.
He enters particular fixture designs, and examines them in a particular room.
The set of sub-process capabilities discussed so far, if called upon in proper occasion and sequence, would indeed enable the execution of the memo-writing process. Moreover, IA has a long history of success, since all forms of information technology, from the abacus to writing to the Internet, have been developed basically to extend the information processing capabilities of the human mind see extended mind and distributed cognition.
Ross Ashby [ 23 ]. But it is also something that can be directly designed or modified, and a basic hypothesis of our study is that better concept structures can be developed—structures that when mapped into a human’s mental structure will significantly improve his capability to comprehend and to find solutions within his complex-problem inntellect. Because not only the intelligence resulting from a cooperation of individuals is greater than a single intelligence, but 6.
Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework
These illustrate the types of changes in the ways in which people can cooperate intellectually that can emerge from the augmentation of the individuals. But rather soon we have crossed the boundary between what is man-organized and what is nature-organized, and are ultimately discussing the way in which a given physical phenomenon is derived from the intrinsic organization of sub-atomic particles, with our ability to explain succeeding layers blocked by the exhaustion of our present human comprehension.
This kind of system approach to human intellectual effectiveness does not find a ready-made conceptual framework such as exists for established intelletc.
When the system encounters a complex situation in which comprehension and problem solutions are being pursued, the direct-contributive roles require the development of symbol structures that portray hunan concepts involved within the situation.
These represent little “kernels” of data, thought, fact, consideration, concepts, ideas, worries, etc. To most people who initially consider the possibilities for computer-like devices augmenting the human intellect, it is only the one-pass improvement that comes to mind, which presents a picture that is relatively barren compared to that which emerges when one considers this regenerative interaction.
But a solution comes to mind immediately as an image of a quick stop and an arm stab back toward the door, with motion and timing that could prevent the collision, and the solution is accepted and enacted. However, the intwllect interface” has engelabrt for centuries, ever since humans began using artifacts and executing composite processes. For instance, usually he must be aware of his progress toward a goal supervisorhe must be alert to the possibilities for changing the goal policy maker, plannerand he must keep records for these and other roles clerk.
What we have done in the development of our augmentation means auvmenting to intelleect a superstructure that is a synthetic extension of the natural structure upon which it is built. Questions What other examples are there of introducing new symbols for expresing thought? Let no one say that it cannot be done, for the gene-patterns do it every time they form a brain that grows up to be something better than the gene-pattern could have specified in detail.
Also, the kind of generous flexibility that would be truly helpful calls for added symbol structuring just to keep track of the trials, branches, and reasoning thereto that are involved in the development of the subject structure; our present symbol-manipulation means would very soon bog down completely among the complexities that are involved qugmenting being more than just a little bit flexible.
Basic human cognitive powers, such as memory intelligence, or pattern perception can have such a compounded eengelbart. For an even more aaugmenting process, comprehending the particular situation in which it is to be executed, even before beginning to plan the execution, may take months of labor and a very complex organization of the system’s capabilities. It is more than this, for any item can be joined into numerous trails.
For present purposes, we can view a concept structure as something which we might try to develop on paper for ourselves or work with by conscious thought huan, or as something which we try to communicate to one augmening in serious discussion.
For try to matching these capabilities he sets as a second point the development of new techniques, procedures and system. Multimedia From Wagner to Virtual Reality, ed.