EKONOMIKOS PAGRINDAI MARTINKUS PDF

Definition from Ekonomikos pagrindai (B. Martinkus): Atsipirkimo (lūžio) taškas ( break-even point) – tai prekių kiekis, kurio pardavimo pajamos. Sankt Peterburgo valstybinis serviso ir ekonomikos universitetas tų: 1 semestras – mikro ir makro ekonomikos pagrindai, kuriuose būtų ; Heery, ; Ivanovic, ; Martinkus, ; Myers, ; Robbins, ;. VERSLO EKONOMIKA IR VADYBA . Lukaševičius K., Martinkus B. Mažųjų ir vidutinių įmonių vadyba. Martinkus B., Žilinskas V. Ekonomikos pagrindai.

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Log In Sign Up. Congruence between personal and organizational values aspects of perception. In the journal scientists publish articles and announce their main ideas, results, and the benefit for management science, studies and busi- ness practice. Congratulations to the newly titled scientist!

break-even

J, R, Q, O Are we planning for sustainable development? Lietuvos darbo rinkos politikos raidos ypatumai: Aktyvi darbo rinkos politika: The European Employment Strategy Office for official Publications of the European Communities. The EU and Lithuania’s strategic planning documents, goals, objectives and significance of measures of job creation and development of rural areas of consistency and sustainability aspects are presented in the article.

National and EU strategies and programs to support the significance of employment and new job pagrinvai were analyzed by content Content analysis. Management theory and studies for rural business and infrastructure development. Tyrimo laikotarpis m. Tyrimo rezultatai Teoriniai verslinio aktyvumo aspektai. Kaip pastebi Hil- derbrant B. Tyrimo metu nustatyta, kad 42,4 proc.

vadybos pagrindai martinkus pdf free – PDF Files

Die grundlagen der Betriebswirtschaftslehre. Zur Theorie der Un- ternehmung. Lietuvos statistikos depar- tamentas. Rural inhabitants have a variety of features which are closely related to their valuables attitudes and the propensity for entrepreneurship. The aim of research was to identify the personal value features and valuables attitudes of the rural inhabitants, defining their importance for entrepreneurial activity.

Based on survey data, there were estimated interfaces elasticity of personal features and valuables attitudes and defined their importance for the entrepreneurial activity of rural population. Furthermore possible managerial improvements leading to increase in efficiency are discussed. The data envelopment analysis and statistical analysis were ap- plied for the research.

The analysis showed that efficiency of an average Lithuanian farm fluctuated between In addition, it had been somehow subdued dur- ing — Mixed crop and mixed livestock mainly grazing farming was peculiar with the highest technical efficiency estimate for the period of — Slack analysis revealed that low land productivity, returns on assets, and intermediate consumption productivity are the most impor- tant sources of the inefficiency, in that order.

C, C, Q, Q Introduction Reasonable strategic decision making requires an integrated assessment of the regulated sector.

The agricultural sector is related to voluminous public support as well as regulations. The application of benchmarking, thus, pagrinai especially im- portant when fostering sustainable agricultural development.

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Furthermore, productive efficiency gains might result into lower costs as well as greater profit margins for the producer and better prices for the participants in the agricultural supply chain Samarajeewa, It is due to A.

Arias ekonomikks M. Davidova that frontier techniques are the most widely applied methods for efficiency measurement in agriculture.

Martinkus, Bronius

Indeed, the frontier methods can be grouped into parametric and non-parametric ones Bogetoft, The parametric frontier methods rely on assumption that inefficiency can be caused by technical draw-backs as well as random errors. However, the exact produc- tion function needs to be specified for these models.

On the other side, non- parametric frontier methods do not allow statistical noise and thus the whole distance between the observation and production frontier is explained by inefficiency. In addi- tion, the production frontier surface is defined by enveloping linearly independent points observations and does not require subjective specification.

Therefore non- parametric models are easier to be implemented. Stochastic frontier analysis and data envelopment analysis DEA are the two seminal methods for, respectively, paramet- ric and non-parametric analysis.

These studies, however, paid less attention to efficiency differ- ences across farming types. Thus there is a need to further analyze these issues. The research covers years — The paper is organized as follows. Section 1 overviews the previous studies on as- sessment of productive efficiency in Lithuanian agricultural sector. The following Sec- tion 2 describes the DEA method. Finally, Section 3 presents results of the analysis.

Non-parametric estimations of Lithuanian farming efficiency: Therefore a number of studies have attempted to research into farming efficiency there by employing fron- tier techniques Gorton, Lithuanian agricultural sector, though, received less attention in the latter scientific area.

Moreover, those few examples employed non- parametric methods, whereas parametric methods e. This section overviews earlier papers which analysed efficiency of the Lithuanian agricultural sector by the means of frontier measures, namely DEA. The pioneering paper in the discussed field is that of V. The latter study attempted to research into technical and scale efficiency and its relations to farm size. The research relied on the FADN ag- gregates 74 observations in total. The authors employed the following procedure for estimation of technical efficiency: Thus the analysis suggested that larger farms were operating more ef- ficiently.

The paper by D. This study also discussed the differ- ences between terms efficiency and effectiveness which are often misused in Lithua- nian scientific works.

The research covered years — and some observa- tions aggregates for EU and non-EU states. Input- and output-oriented DEA models yielded efficiency scores of In addition the effective- ness of capital and intermediate consumption was observed in Lithuania.

Therefore, the land, livestock, and labour productivity were estimated. The high value of slacks in crop otput land produc- tivity and the net value added per AWU labour productivity for the three Baltic States indicated the necessity of qualitative and quantitative changes to be imple- mented here.

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It was Douarin and Latruffe who offered the single foreign contribution to the DEA-based efficiency analysis of Lithuanian agriculture. The aim of that study was to estimate the farming efficiency and possible outcomes of the incentives pro- vided by EU Single Area Payments. Moreover, this study was based on micro- rather than aggregate data. The research showed that 1 larger farms operated more efficiently, 2 subsidies were re- lated to lower efficiency scores.

It was concluded that the overall farming efficiency should decrease, for lower effi- ciency farms were about to expand and thus increase competition in the land market. To conclude, productive efficiency is still promising area for further researches in Lithuania.

Micro data analysis is especially underemployed. The very term of efficiency was initially defined by G. Debreu and then by T. It was Debreu who discussed the question of re- source utilization at the aggregate level, whereas Koopmans offered the following definition of an efficient DMU: A DMU is fully efficient if and only if it is not possi- ble to improve any input or output without worsening some other input or output.

Due to similarity to the definition of Pareto efficiency, wkonomikos former is called Pareto— Koopmans Efficiency. Farrell summarized works of G. Debreu pagrkndai T. Koopmans thus offering frontier analysis of efficiency and describing two types of economic efficiency, namely technical efficiency and alloca- tive efficiency indeed, a different terminology was used at that time.

It worth to note, that the seminal paper of M. Farrel was also dedicated to analysis of agricultural production in the United States. Farrell did not succeed in handling Pareto—Koopmans Efficiency with proper mathematical framework. The modern version of DEA originated in studies of A. Rhodes Charnes, Initially, the fractional form of DEA was offered. However, this model was transformed into input— and output—oriented multiplier models, which could be solved by means of the linear programming LP.

In addition, the dual CCR model i. Unlike many traditional analysis tools, DEA does not require to gather infor- mation about prices of materials or produced goods, thus making it suitable for evaluating both private— and public—sector efficiency. For the i-th firm these are represented by the column vectors xi and qi, respec- tively. The following BCC R. Cooper output- oriented DEA linear programming model yields the estimates of technical efficiency Banker, ; Coelli, Indeed, CRS indicates that the producer is able to scale the inputs and outputs linearly without increasing or decreasing efficiency Ramanathan, Data and results Mrtinkus research relies on aggregate data.

As for benchmarking in agriculture, the FADN is the most elaborated data source.